Pour-In-Place (PIP) makes far more revenue for playground manufacturers & installers, because it's by far the most expensive, yet it's easily the most dangerous surface available for playgrounds. This ought to be simple to understand so any reasonable person might conclude PIP should be on playgrounds as a safety surface. Use it on splash pads instead, where there aren't any serious fall heights, and the water can flow through it and be recycled.
Fall injuries on PIP are 444% to 700% more likely to result in traumatic brain injury (TBI) or death vs an average playground rubber mulch (US Rubber Mulch product offers up to 100% better fall height protection than others!), analysis has proven. This has been known for nearly 10 years, because the kinetic energy absorbed from the initial impact is transferred back upward toward the still falling child by PIP, thereby amplifying the severity of the injury.
The upper wearcourse of EPDM exudes an amber-colored waxy carcinogenic substance, when exposed to sunlight, which can cause cracks and delamination. The heat, air and moisture trapped within PIP creates a perfect Petri dish for microbes and diseases to multiply and spread. The types of injuries sustained from fall impacts upon PIP are pretty bad, or worse for young children.
PIP is the playground surface the foremost authority on playground safety felt was dangerous, so much so, she said it was her, "number one goal to get it removed from all playgrounds...," Dr. Donna Thompson (former Executive Director of The National Program for Playground Safety, Chair of ASTM & CPSC Boards on playground safety, and editor of our company founder's 2014 article at Playground magazine online).